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Featured Topic: French Loan Words in Vietnam

Posted May 21st, 2010 by Peter · 50 Comments
2,541 views

Hi SAPL Readers! Blogger Danny Bloom was kind enough to share his article about how certain Vietnamese words have been derived. It’s interesting that a great deal actually come from France (not really), but check it out! I learned a great deal about Vietnamese words I never thought had French roots at all.

According to legends handed down to the current city fathers of Hanoi today, it was in 1010 that a king by the name of Ly Thai Tho claimed to have seen a dragon rising up from a nearby river, and he decided to call his temporary settlement along the banks of that river Thang Long: “rising dragon.” Hanoi itself gets its name from the Vietnamese word “hanoi,” which means ”a bend in the river’.’ Welcome to the name game in southeast Asia!


Loan Words Galore!

Before Americans got involved in a long and protacted war in Vietnam in the 1960s and 70s, the French had been heavily involved in the country for over 300 years. From 1853 to 1954, France ran Vietnam as an overseas colony. As a result, as one can imagine, Vietnam’s French colonial past has left its mark on the country’s language. The Vietnamese word for cheese, ”pho mat”, comes from the French word ”fromage,” and cake is called “ga to”, from the French word “gateau.”

During a recent research expedition via keyboard and Internet, this reporter came across over 50 “loan words” from French still used in Vietnam today, in addiiton to pho mat and ga to. To understand what follows, it helps to know a little French, but even if you never studied French in school and you don’t know bonjour from bonsoir, take a look at what some erudiate word sleuths have unearthed.

  • Liver pate is called “pa” in Vietnam today. Pate chaud, according to foodie with a website Andrea Nguyen, is called “pa so.”
  • “Ba” — father — comes from the French word “papa.”
  • “Va li” comes from the the French word for suitcase — valise.
  • “Bo” (beurre), and “ri-do” (rideau, drapes, curtain), I learned from Andrea Q. Nguyen today, too.
  • “Bia” comes from the French word for beer, “biere.”
  • A doll is called a “bup-be” in Vietnam, from the French word “poupee” for puppet.
  • What to call a necktie on that senior civil servant giving a press conference on Hanoi TV? It’s a “ca vat” — from the French word “cravate.”
  • “Doc to” is on loan from the French word “docteur” which is not far from our English version: doctor.

  • “Phac to” comes from “facteur,” the French word for mailman. You need to understand French a little bit to really get the fun involved here, but even if you don’t, c’est la vie. Amusez-vous bien!
  • “Phim” means “movie” and comes from the French word “film”.
  • A “pha” is a headlight on your car or motorscooter, from the French word “phare”.
  • Motorscooters and motorcycles are themselves are called “moto” — from “motorcyclette”.
  • Did I make a mistake? In French, they call it a “faute”. In Vietnam today, people say “phot”.
  • “Bit-tet” is of course from the French term “biftek” — beefsteak, or just plain steak. Oishii!
  • Coffee is called “ca phe” from the French word “cafe”.
  • Wine is called “vang” (le vin). Soap is called “xa bong” (savon).
  • A circus is called “xiec” (from the French word “cirque”).

I never knew any of this. I have never been to Vietnam. But being an armchair traveller is fun, too, and I can dream, n’est-ce pas?









Much of my research came from the work of Dr Milton Barber (via New York Times “On Language” columnist Ben Zimmer’s wonderful hat tip direction!), whose “The Phonological Adaptation of French Loan Words in Vietnamese” was my main resource here. He wrote that in 1963 during America’s military operations in Vietnam.

I didn’t go to Vietnam. But I did go to France. For a year. I dropped out of college to go travelling for a year in France, mostly drinking coffee in sidewalk cafe in Paris all day and going to the movies at night at the Cinemateque Francais. Those were the days. A year in paradise, oo-la-la! Oui, oui. It was cold and raining every day!

Now I have several Vietnamese friends in Taiwan where I dwell in a computer-less cave with no WiFi. These women have married Taiwanese men and number in the tens of thousands in Taiwan now. More then 90 percent of new foreign brides in Taiwan are from Vietnam. So every day, I practice some of these French loan words with my Vietnamese neighbors and their children, and sip ”ca phe” while eating some good delicious ”pho”. Noodles. Lamen.

Welcome to the Global Tower of Babel, where we are one people, one race, many genepools, billions of souls. I love it.

You can view Danny’s blog at: Here
[ See Andrea's great blogs here: http://www.vietworldkitchen.com/ and http://www.asiandumplingtips.com/ ]

Thanks Danny!

Are there any words in your native tongues with European (or non-asian) roots?

Comment Below!

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Tags: Activities · Environment · Featured Topic · Films and Movies · Food & Beverage · History · Learn Asian! · Open Dialogue · People

50 responses so far ↓

  • 1 Peter // May 21, 2010 at 2:27 pm

    Here’s another part of the article I couldn’t add for lengths’ purposes:

    MaryJo Pham, a junior at Tufts University in Boston tells me:
    ”This topic has always interested me, since I’m an American-born
    Vietnamese who still uses this (to many of today’s Vietnamese youths)
    old-fashioned way of speaking. A brief list off the top of my head to
    add your very good one:

    Piscine is still in use for swimming pool….

    café = cá phê = coffee

    cyclo = xích lô = bicycle drawn rickshaw

    yaourt = da ua = yogurt

    creme = cá rem = ice cream

    fermeture = phẹc mỏ tua = zipper

    jupe = jupe? = skirt

    soutien = sú chiên = brassiere

    pin = pin = battery

    Motor = Môtô = motor bike, motorcycle, etc.

    [You can see what came along with the introduction of the actual
    transliteration of the words -- batteries, brasseries, coffee --
    things indispensable to daily life in Vietnam. And foodstuffs that
    have long been incorporated into the national menu -- banh mi pate
    (french baguette with pate, meats, very good!), Vietnamese-style
    frozen yogurt, Vietnamese drip-coffee with condensed milk, etc.]
    [I feel as if some of the vocabulary is used (esp. concerning
    clothing) among certain classes/neighborhoods (urban vs. suburban/out
    of Saigon/Hanoi areas). ]

    MaryJo adds: ”I’ve never heard of doc-to, I feel that it’s always
    been the Vietnamese “bac si.”

    Pate = pate, pate so for pate chaud; pa itself doesn’t refer to pate.

    Bo is still definitely in use — no other word for it! :) ..BUTTER! ”

    and…”Phim, for movies, film , yes!

    ‘Pa’ has no meaning in Vietnamese, as far as I know. I looked it up on
    http://www.vdict.com to check. (useful site)

  • 2 Eurasian Sensation // May 21, 2010 at 7:43 pm

    What about “pho”? While the noodle soup pho is very much a Vietnamese dish, it is widely believed that the name comes from the French “pot au feu” (pot on the fire = hotpot). The French word “feu” is pronounced almost exactly the same as “pho”.

  • 3 Peter // May 21, 2010 at 10:04 pm

    @Eurasian Sensation, That’s awesome! I would never have thought that at all

  • 4 danny // May 22, 2010 at 4:01 am

    While a distinctly Vietnamese dish, phở has French and Chinese influences.[4] The origin of the word was one subject in a seminar on phở held in Hanoi in 2003.[4] One theory advanced at the seminar is that the name comes from the French feu (fire), as in the dish pot-au-feu, which like phở uses the French method of adding charred onion to the broth for color and flavor, one of the techniques which distinguishes phở from other Asian noodle soups.[4] Some believe the origin of the word to be the Chinese fen (粉)[citation needed](this character is pronounced phấn in Vietnamese.)

  • 5 danny // May 22, 2010 at 4:02 am

    @danny,

    While a distinctly Vietnamese dish, pho has French and Chinese influences, says Wiki….. The origin of the word was one subject in a seminar on pho held in Hanoi in 2003…… One theory advanced at the seminar is that the name comes from the French feu (fire), as in the dish pot-au-feu, which like pho uses the French method of adding charred onion to the broth for color and flavor, one of the techniques which distinguishes pho from other Asian noodle soups

    BUT…… Some believe the origin of the word to be the Chinese fen (粉)[……this character is pronounced phon in Vietnamese.)

  • 6 danny // May 22, 2010 at 4:03 am

    @Eurasian Sensation, thank you EAS for this . wow, i never knew.

  • 7 danny // May 22, 2010 at 4:23 am

    The pot-au-feu (French pronunciation: [potofø], “pot on the fire”) is a French beef stew. Many countries have similar dishes with local ingredients.

    There are variations as to the cuts of beef and the vegetables involved, but a typical pot-au-feu contains:

    low-cost cuts of beef that need long cooking;
    usually some kind of cartilaginous meat, such as oxtail and marrowbone;
    vegetables: carrots, turnips, leeks, celery, and onions;
    spices: bouquet garni, salt, black pepper and cloves.

  • 8 danny // May 22, 2010 at 4:36 am

    The Murky Beginnings of Pho: a French Connection?
    Despite the fact that pho is a reflection of the culture and history of Vietnam, no one really knows how pho came to be. Restaurateur and author Mai Pham’s research on pho, as cited in Vietnamese culinary expert Andrea Nguyen’s blog, stated that there is nothing written about the early history of pho. All there is left are oral traditions handed down by elders. It is, however, agreed upon by many experts in Vietnamese cuisine, including Ms. Pham and Ms. Nguyen, that the history of pho began in Hanoi in northern Vietnam and that it started when the French colonized the country in the late 1880s.

    In the SpiceLines interview on Ms. Nguyen, she said that before Vietnam was conquered by the French, the Vietnamese people did not slaughter cows for food. Instead, they used these animals to till their rice fields and as beasts of burden.

    The general theory held by most Vietnamese culinary experts is that the word “pho” is a corruption of the French “feu” or “fire.” Pho could be a Vietnamese adaptation of the French soup “pot au feu” or French beef stew, which the French brought to Vietnam when they came to rule the country. But let me take this theory further into something more concrete to possibly reflect facts. It is this: Vietnamese love to take foreign words and use them as our own, but with a Vietnamese accent. Thus “feu” became “Phở.” But there’s more. It’s always been a popular knowledge that the French, specifically a man named Jesuit Alexandre de Rhodes in the country between 1624 and 1644, helped convert Vietnamese written language from a variant of Chinese characters into the modern age with translations using the Latin alphabet system. So the French connection to pho and Vietnamese language is much more intimate than casual, and it’s not unthinkable that pho did come from feu. Read more on the Vietnamese alphabet.

    “Pot au feu” literally means “pot on the fire,” signifying the long hours required to create the soup. Just like with pho, cartilaginous, marrow-rich beef bones are used to make the broth of the pot au feu. These bones are left to boil and simmer in water on low heat for at least three hours, and the scum and foam formed by excess grease from the bone marrow are skimmed and discarded.

    Another similarity that pot au feu shares with pho is the fact that ginger and onions are also roasted in an open flame before they are added to flavor the broth. Vegetables like carrots and turnips are used to top pot au feu. In pho, these vegetables are replaced by bean sprouts and herbs, with a little lime juice added in for taste.

  • 9 JChan // May 23, 2010 at 2:29 pm

    Forgive me, but I highly doubt that “ba” – for father – came from French. 1) They definitely had to have a word for “father” before the French came, and 2) A word in such common use as “father” and ingrained in a culture cannot possibly be replaced by a loan word.
    The Chinese word for father is bàbà, so I think that the Vietnamese word for father probably came from a common linguistic root.

    On a different note, there are a few loanwords in Chinese (but not many. The Chinese have largely tried resisting “dirtying” the language, like the French now), mostly for things that came from Europe (and are quite humorous if you consider their actual semantic meanings).
    沙发 – shā fā: Sofa. (Literally: “Issuing sand”)
    酷 – kù: cool. (Literally: cruel; to an extreme degree)
    吧 – ba: bar (as in alcohol) (Literally: meh.)
    巴士 – ba shǐ: Bus. (Literally: Hope + Person of high repute)
    沙拉 – shā lā: salad (Literally: Sand Pull)

  • 10 Anonymous // May 23, 2010 at 8:42 pm

    A Vietnamese-American friend in California, who runs a food blog about Vietnamese food, told me today re PHO as a French loan word from pot au feu…….

    “Dear Danny
    There’s no confirmation of that. Sorry. Lots of conjecture.”

    So?

    Pho?

    French or what? Dish, if you know! An English language newspaper in Taiwan is poised to report this news next weekend in a feature article about Vietnam. Will post link when I see it. If it appears. Might not appear until June.

    Thanks for all the feedback here. Long live Internet research!

  • 11 mvuong // May 24, 2010 at 1:36 pm

    Seconded on the unlikelihood of father coming from French. Linguistically it is highly unlikely for a core word, such as father, to be adopted from another language no matter the influence. Many of the other words are technologies that were brought over so seeing them adopted as loan words makes tons of sense.

    During my time writing papers on the vietnamese language, I found it increasingly amusing that there were so many loan words in the language. So many chinese, english, and french words everywhere.

  • 12 Jenny // May 26, 2010 at 8:01 am

    The Japanese adopt many foreign words that cannot be translated. A few French words that are used very commonly are
    pain – pan – bread
    croquette – korroke –

    Persian:
    Kiosk – kiosuku

    They also like to shorten English words and make them into Japanese such as
    word processor – wapro
    convenience store – conbini
    personal computer – pasocon

    Jenny

  • 13 Thien Phan // May 26, 2010 at 9:03 pm

    I’m sorry but some of the words aren’t what we say…like liver pate is Vietnamese is “Pa tê”, not “Pa”, doctor in Vietnamese is “Bác sĩ”, not “Doc to”. Please change them because those aren’t even Vietnamese.

  • 14 sarah // May 28, 2010 at 8:38 pm

    interesting! i knew some of them, like va li and phec mo tua, just because they sounded so french to begin with.

    does anyone know if pigeon (chim bo cau) has french origins? it sounds kinda foreign too.

  • 15 danny bloom // May 28, 2010 at 10:33 pm

    Thanks everyone above, for your comments and instructions. I made a few mistakes in this published article,

    http://taipeitimes.com/News/feat/archives/2010/05/29/2003474148

    and now with your patience, later I will correct the mistakes on my blog, since you are my teachers and thanks. Sarah, chim bo cau sounds interesting. how to say Pigeon in French?

    @Thien Phan
    i will try to correce this on my blog: thanks re:
    …..”some of the words aren’t what we say…like liver pate is Vietnamese is “Pa tê”, not “Pa”, doctor in Vietnamese is “Bác sĩ”, not “Doc to”…Please change them because those aren’t even Vietnamese.” DANNY REPLIES: SORRY, MY MISTAKE AND THANKS FOR CORRECTING ME, WILL CORRECT MY BLOG AT

    http://pcofftherails101.blogspot.com/2010/05/whats-that-pho-french-loan-words-used.html

    @mvuong, also thanks for teaching me here: My French is just high school vareity and my Vietnamese does not exist. so thanks for teaching this old man in Taiwan. RE: “Seconded on the unlikelihood of father coming from French. …….. Many of the other words are technologies that were brought over…… so seeing them adopted as loan words makes tons of sense.”

  • 16 danny bloom // May 29, 2010 at 9:42 pm

    A blogger tells me: “Hi everyone. I’m working on a paper for my undergraduate phonology course, and I’m having a bit of trouble determining what the underlying tone phoneme (toneme?) is for my data set.

    My paper topic is Vietnamese tone assignment in French loanwords, and while I know that the Southern dialect of Vietnamese phonemically contrasts 5 tones (sắc, ngang, huyền, hổi, and nặng), I’m not sure how to figure out if the underlying toneme is just the toneme in the surface form, or if the underlying toneme is always one particular tone.

    I’m leaning toward the latter, where the underlying toneme would always be ngang. My reasoning is that my data set shows ngang tone in unpredictable environments, whereas huyền generally shows up on the vowel of the first syllable in disyllabic adaptations, and sắc shows up on vowels preceding obstruents in word-final position. Hổi and nặng tones do not seem to appear on French loanwords in Vietnamese.

    Is this evidence strong enough to conclude that ngang is the underlying toneme? And that surface form can be derived with phonological processes involving the environments of huyền and sắc?

    Thank you in advance for any help you could offer.”

  • 17 Filipina At Home // Jun 11, 2010 at 6:46 am

    The Philippines was ruled by Spain for 300 years and a lot of the Spanish words have been incorporated in the many languages and dialects in the Philippines. Funny how some have evolved:

    The Spanish word SEGURO (sure or certain) means MAYBE in the Filipino language. If you want to say “Sure” in Filipino, then you say SEGURADO.

    MUCHACHA (young girl) is used in a derogatory way and means HOUSEMAID in Filipino.

    LECHE (milk) has evolved into a cussword in Filipino.

    There are lots of Spanish loanwords in the Philippine languages and dialects, not only in the Filipino language like silya (silla), baka (vaca), piyesta (fiesta), tenedor, cuchara (fork and spoon) etc…
    I hope to write a blog about this as soon as I have done enough research…

    http://www.filipinaathome.com

  • 18 danny bloom // Jun 12, 2010 at 4:41 am

    Dear FAH,
    great post! and great ideas and yes, do a blog on this soon. very interesting. — danny

  • 19 Filipina At Home // Jun 14, 2010 at 1:11 am

    @danny bloom,
    will share it too, as soon as i have put something together. Great post! There is so much to learn…especially about Asia!

    Filipina At Home

  • 20 danny // Jun 14, 2010 at 7:19 am

    FAH, yes yes yes. btw, what is kara kara, i heard it is pronounced KA RAY KA RAY, is that right? and what does it taste like? any fotos? and why does it have that name

  • 21 Daniella Tou // Jul 27, 2010 at 10:26 am

    http://bit.ly/cw82HG

  • 22 Ganji // Jul 30, 2010 at 9:41 pm

    @danny, The one you are talking about is kare-kare
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kare-kare
    It is pronounced kahreh kahreh but sounds like karay karay in an American accent, it is really delicious

  • 23 danny bloom // Jul 30, 2010 at 10:02 pm

    @Ganji, wow

    As with many things in the Philippines, there are several stories as to the origins of this rather unusual yet distinctly Filipino dish. The first one is that it came from Pampanga. Another, from the regal dishes of the Moro elite who once settled in Manila before the Spanish arrival (interestingly enough, in Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, Kare-kare also remains a popular dish). It is a comfort food for Filipinos, and is a perennial family favorite in both local and overseas Filipino households. Possibly the name “Kare-Kare” is derived from カレー (Kare) which is Japanese for; Curry, the word might have been contributed by the Japanese in trading with the Philippines in the pre-colonial times.

  • 24 Bobby // Aug 11, 2010 at 8:41 pm

    there is also a French loan word in Vietnamese that my Vietnamese-American classmate told me for makeup which comes from the French “Maquillage”. Someone please correct me, because I’m probably wrong.

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  • 26 D.Bui // Dec 9, 2010 at 3:08 pm

    @Bobby, it’s “ma-ki-dê” :) Nowadays we use either that, or “trang điểm”, which comes from (Classical) Chinese, or “make-up”.

  • 27 D.Bui // Dec 9, 2010 at 3:09 pm

    @danny bloom, “đóc-tờ” is indeed an older word for doctor. But modern Vietnamese speakers would use “bác sĩ” only.

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  • 32 dan bloom // Mar 4, 2011 at 9:09 pm

    French loan words used in Vietnam today — a long list from A to Z – “Từ vay mượn của Tiếng Pháp”http://lnat1001.blogspot.com/2010/06/tu-vay-muon-cua-tieng-phap.html

  • 33 dan bloom // Mar 4, 2011 at 9:10 pm

    Le Ngoc Anh Thu ♥ ڸ٥ﻻ ﻉ√٥ﺎ ٱ ♥This Blog Linked From Here The Web
    This BlogLinked From HereThe WebFriday, June 18, 2010Từ vay mượn của Tiếng Pháp
    Giờ nghiệm ra Tiếng Việt ta rất phong phú . Qua gần 2 tháng học Tiếng Pháp , mình mới phát hiện từ Tiếng Việt vay mượn của Tiếng Pháp cũng rất thú vị .Trước kia , chỉ thấy nó như vậy , phiên – âm – từng -từ nó như vậy và để chỉ một sự vật , sự việc hay một hành động cụ thể , chứ không hiểu xuất phát từ đâu?Giờ không chỉ biết nó từ đâu, mà còn biết cách viết, cách đọc nó như thế nào nữa. Xin giới thiệu ở đây để mọi người tham khảo, ai có từ nào khác thì bổ sung nhé

  • 34 dan bloom // Mar 4, 2011 at 9:12 pm

    This list of words was compiled byhttp://lnat1001.blogspot.com/2010/06/tu-vay-muon-cua-tieng-phap.htmlLe Ngoc Anh Thu ♥ ڸ٥ﻻ ﻉ√٥ﺎ ٱ ♥A-lẹt : alerte
    alô: allô
    amiđan: amygdale
    amatơ: amateur
    amiăng: amiante
    ampe: ampère
    an bom: album
    a-pác-thai: apartheid
    áp phích: affiche
    Áp phê : affaire
    a ti sô: artichaut
    át: as (cartes)
    a xít: acide—Ă—ắc qui: accus, accumulateur
    ăng kết: enquête
    ăng lê: anglais
    ăng ten: antenne—B—Bắc : bac
    bánh quy: biscuit
    ba ga: baggage
    ban công : balcon
    ban xe : Panne
    ba lê: ballet
    bazan: basalte
    bazơ: basse
    Bá láp : palabre
    Băng : banc
    băng (đảng, chuyền, cát xét): bande
    Ba tê : pâté
    Ba-toong : bâton
    bê tông: béton
    Bẹc giê (chó) : chien de berger
    bi: bille
    bi đông: bidon
    bi da: billard
    bia: bière
    Bíp tách : bifsteck
    Bi-ra-ma : pyjama
    boa: pourboire
    bom: bombe
    boongke: bunker
    Bót : poste
    bơ: beurre
    bu gi: bougie
    bu giông (áo) : blouson
    bù loong: boulon
    búp bê: poupée
    Búp-phê : buffet
    Buýt : bus
    Boong : pont—C—cabin: cabine
    ca bô: capot (d’une voiture)
    ca cao: cacao
    ca rô: carreau
    ca ta lô: catalogue
    ca vát: cravate
    cà phê: café
    cà ri: cari
    cà rem: crème
    cà rốt: carotte
    cao su: caoutchouc
    cạc: carte
    các tông (thùng ): carton
    cạc vẹc (bằng lái xe): carte verte (permis de conduire)
    cạc vi zít (danh thiếp): carte de visite
    cát xét: cassette
    cátxê: cassé
    Cam-nhông : camion
    căng tin: cantine
    compa: compas
    Com lê: complet (veston)
    côngtenơ: conteneur
    công tơ: compteur
    Cóp: copier
    cô ban: cobalte
    cốp xe: coffre
    chất cơ: coeur (cartes)
    cu li: coolie
    Ci-nê : cinéma
    Côn : colt
    Coóc-sê :corset
    cua : 1- cúp cua (cours : khoá học, lớp học) ; 2- hớt đầu cua (court :ngắn ), 3-cua gái (faure la cour/ courtiser )
    Cúp : coupe
    cuarơ: coureur
    cùi dìa: cuiller—D—da ua: yaourt/ yoghurt—Đ—Ðăng-ten : dentelle
    Đăng-xê : dancer
    đầm: dame
    đề ba: départ
    đề-can: décal (décalcomanie)
    điêzen: diesel
    đi văng: divan
    Ðít-cua : discours
    Ðít-lôm : diplôme
    đóc tơ: docteur
    đôminô: domino
    Ðông-ki-sốt : Don Quichotte
    Ðơ-dèm-cùi-bắp :deuxième classe, soldat de
    Ðờ-măn : demande
    đúp bờ: double—Ê—ê ke: équerre
    ê kíp: equipe—G—nhà ga: gare
    ga: gaz
    ga lăng: Galant
    ga tô: gateau
    găng tay: gant
    Gác dan : gardien
    ghẻ lở: galeux
    ghi ta: guitare
    gi-lê: gilet
    giăm bông: jambon
    gôm: gomme
    Ghi-đông : guidon
    Gu : goût
    Gôn : gaule—H—hóc môn: hormone—K—ka- ki: kaki—L—2:13 AM
    dan said…
    La va bô: lavabo
    La de : la bíère
    lăng xê: lancée
    Lê dương : légionnaire
    Lò xo : ressort
    Lô tô : loto
    lô cốt: blockhaus
    lôgarít: logarimthe
    lôgic: logique
    Lô-can : local
    Lô-ca-xông : location
    len: laine
    lít: litre
    cú líp: lift (tennis)
    líp xe đạp: roue libre
    kính lúp: loupe—M—ma lanh: malin
    ma nơ canh: mannequin
    Ma-cà-bông : vagabond
    áo măng tô: manteau
    áo may ô: maillot
    mét: mètre
    mít tinh: meeting
    Moa : moi
    môtô: moto
    mô típ: motif
    mù tạc: moutarde
    Mùi xoa (khăn) : mouchoir—N—đèn nê ông: néon
    chất nhép: trèfle (cartes)
    Nhôm : aluminium
    Nô-en: Noël
    nơ: nœud
    nui: nouilles
    ny lông: nylon—Ô—ô liu: olive
    ôxy: oxygène
    ôtô: automobile (voiture)
    Ô-tô-buýt (autobus)—P—pa tanh: patin
    pê đan: pedale
    pê đê: pédé
    pianô: piano
    pin: pile
    Phanh : frein
    phéc-mơ-tuya: fermeture
    phê thuốc: fait
    phích: fiche (prise)
    phin: filtre
    phóc sết: fourchette
    phô mát: fromage
    Phú lít : police—R—rađiô: radio
    ru băng: ruban
    Rầy : rail
    Rốc-kết : rocket—S—sâm banh: champagne
    séc: chèque
    séc đấu: set (tennis)
    sếp: chef
    Sớp-phơ : chauffeur
    sơ mi (áo): chemise
    Sô-cô-la : chocolat
    sing gum: chewing-gum
    quần sóoc: short
    ghế sôfa: sofa
    sa – lông : salon
    sút : shoot—T—Tách : tasse
    tắc xi: taxi
    tăng phanh: temps
    Tem : timbre
    tùng bê : tombe
    xe tăng: tank
    xe tăng đem (xe đạp): tandem (bicyclette)
    điệu tăng gô: tango
    típ người: type
    toalét: toilette
    Toa : toi
    Trây-di : treillis
    tông: ton
    tông đơ: tondeur / tondeuse
    Tua : tour
    tua bin: turbine
    tuốc nơ vít: tournevis
    tuýp kem: tube—V—va li: valise
    va ni: vanille
    van: valve
    điệu van: valse
    rượu vang: vin
    Vẹc-ni : vernis
    viđêo: video
    viôlông: violon
    vít: vis
    vô lăng: volant—X—xa tanh: satin
    quỷ Xa tăng: Satan
    xà bông / xà phồng : savon
    xà lách: salade
    quần xà lỏn: sarong
    Xăng : essence
    quả xê ri: cerise
    số xê ri: série
    xi lanh: cylindre
    xi líp: slip
    xi nê: ciné
    xi măng: ciment
    xi nhan(đèn): signal
    xi mi li(vải): simili
    xích lô: cyclo
    xi phông: siphon
    xi rô: syrop
    xi téc: citerne
    xích lô: cyclo
    xì căng đan: scandale
    xiếc: cirque
    xki: ski
    vải xoa: soie
    xơ cua: secours
    xe xkútơ: scooter
    xốt: sauce
    xơ: soeur
    xu chiêng: soutien-gorge

  • 35 REV.FR.MATINS.BRUCE // Mar 21, 2011 at 4:25 am

    CATHOLIC MONASTRY FUNDING FIRM.This is a Christian Organization formed to help people in need of help, such as financial help. So if you are going through financial difficulty or you are in any financial mess, and you need funds to start up your own business, or you need loan to settle your debt or pay off your bills, start a nice business,or you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks, contact us today via email :( catholicmonastryloanfirm@gmail.com )
    the bible says” Luke 11:10 Everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; and to him who knocks, the door will be opened”. So do not let these opportunity pass you by because Jesus is the same yesterday, today and forever more. Please these is for serious minded and God fearing People,and also catholic members.
    Greetings to you form our lord Jesus Christ who made it possible for this transaction,This mail is to notify you that CATHOLIC MONASTRY now offers financial assistance to any one in need,due to the high rate of scams in the financial world. We also want to inform you that you will not have any regret in applying for a loan in this establishment because we have been in this lending business for the past 9years.We offer personal loans, equity loans, investment loans e.t.c to companies,churches, schools,firms and individual.
    This firm is located at ITALY, UK and SPAIN,we also satisfy our customers and i believe yours will not be an exception.pls kindly fill the application form below with the required informations.
    we hope to make this transaction different from the rest.LOAN APPLICATION FORM (BORROWERS DETAILS)(1) NAME:……………………….
    (2) CONTACT ADDRESS:………
    (3) LOAN AMOUNT IN EUROS/POUNDS:……………………..
    (4) LOAN DURATION:……………………
    (5) PURPOSE OF LOAN:…………………..
    (6) GENDER:…………………….
    (7) MODE OF FUND RECEPTION:………………………..
    (8) COUNTRY:………………….
    (9) OFFICE/HOME PHONE NUMBER:…………………………….
    (10) OCCUPATION:……………………
    (11) EMAIL ADDRESS:……………….
    (12) ZIP/ POSTAL CODE:………………
    (13) CITY:……………………
    (14) BANK ACCOUNT BALANCE:………………..
    (15) NEXT OF KIN:………………….
    (16) MARITAL STATUS:………………………..
    (17)SCAN AND ATTACH YOUR IDENTITY CARD………………..please if you are interested in obtaining loan from CATHOLIC MONASTRY FUNDING FIRM,kindly get back to us through this email address below:
    [catholicmonastryloanfirm@gmail.com], and we hope that all your problems will be solve in JESUS NAME.THANKS,
    REV.FR.MATINS.BRUCE.

  • 36 Pretreatment // Mar 21, 2011 at 7:32 pm

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  • 41 MR. LIN POH // Apr 22, 2011 at 12:29 am

    GOOD DAY, I’m Mr. Lin Poh (CEO) of Lin Poh Loan Firm,we offer loans to individual and company at 3% interested rate, if you are interested in securing a loan from us, you are advice to forward your request to us E-mail:linpohloanfirm@yahoo.com.sg!!!!

  • 42 Joanna // Jun 13, 2011 at 7:21 pm

    Dear Friends, Before anyone wanted to take up the Loan from the Finance Company, please remember all these companies will have lots of hidden cost for you to pay and pay, finally you will not get your Loan but will make you into deeper debts. They will keep promising you that is the final payment, and in 30 minutes or 1 hour you will get your Loan released but finally another higher payment will pop up for you to pay, where there is no ending. I have tried 7 companies and finally I am a victim of paying for all the companies only and I am yet to get my Loan released to me.

  • 43 Wong // Jul 21, 2011 at 8:46 am

    WARNING – please be careful with the below Loan lender .
    Ripped Off by Online Loan Lender – CATHOLIC MONASTERY FUNDING FIRM (catholicmonastryloanfirm@gmail.com)
    I have applied the Loan from this firm, with REV.FR.MATINS BRUCE the CEO & Loan Consultant, He is a big time fraudster, he is a green snake under the green grass and it is very very unfortunate that he uses priesthood to defraud his victim. I am a victim him of paying only and I am yet to get my Loan released to me until today. This Company will have lots of hidden cost for me to pay and pay, no doubts I had make the payment, they can claim that the money was lost, the money was robbed during the accident, etc…I will have to pay again the payment. He will keep promising me that this is the last and final payment, Fr. Matins will keep giving me empty promises and swearing, and in 30 minutes I will get my Loan released after my payment but finally he will give some other excuses, broken all his promises and swearing, then I am require to make another payment, payment after payment will pop up for me to pay, where there is no ending. I am now into deeper debts. He is a real scammer, I lost $5,000 usd to him.
    I do not know what to do now, is there a genuine Loan Lender in this world?

  • 44 Jennifer // Aug 19, 2011 at 12:07 pm

    My name is Jennifer George, am from United State, i apply for a loan of $50,000USD from Lin Poh and the loan has just be granted to me, contact them via email:linpohloanfirm@yahoo.com.sg, tell them that i introduce you to them, best of luck.

  • 45 Andrew Lee // Dec 24, 2011 at 2:01 am

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  • 47 REHANA AMAN // Mar 9, 2012 at 2:07 pm

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  • 48 Mr.James Chris // Nov 19, 2012 at 1:47 am

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